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直接引語如何變為間接引語

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  引述別人的話時,一般采用兩種方式:一是引用別人的原話,把它放在引號內,稱為直接引語;二是用自己的話加以轉述,被轉述的話不放在引號內,稱為間接引語。間接引語在大多數情況下是一個賓語從語。直接引語變成間接引語時,要注意以下幾點:人稱變化、時態變化、賓語從句要用陳述句語序。

  1.直接引語是陳述句,變成間接引語時,由連詞that 引導。例如:

  she said, "i am very happy to help you."→

  she said that she was very happy to help you.

  2. 直接引語是一般(選擇/反意)疑問句,變成間接引語時,由連詞whether或if 引導。例如:

  he asked me, "do you like playing football?"→

  he asked me if/whether i liked playing football.

  注意:大多數情況下,if和whether 可以互換,但后有or not,或在動詞不定式前,或放在介詞后作連接詞時,一般只用whether。例如:

  she asked me whether he could do it or not.

  he hesitated about whether to drive or take the train.

  3. 直接引語是特殊疑問句,變成間接引語時,由相應的疑問詞who, whom, whose, how, when, why, where 等引導。例如:

  my sister asked me, "how do you like the film?"→

  my sister asked me how i liked the film.

  4. 直接引語是祈使句,變成間接引語時,把動詞原形變成動詞不定式,并在動詞不定前加tell, ask, order 等的賓語。例如:

  the captain ordered, "be quiet."→

  the captain ordered us to be quiet.

  注意:此種情況的否定句,在動詞不定式前加not。

  my teacher asked me, "don't laugh."→

  my teacher asked me not to laugh.

  5. 一些注意事項

  (1)直接引語是客觀事實、普遍真理等,變成間接引語時,時態不變。例如:

  they told their son,"the earth goes round the sun."→

  they told their son that the earth goes round the sun.

  (2)直接引語變間接引語時, 指示代詞、時間狀語、地點狀語等要作相應的變化。如:this/that→ these/those, now→then, today→that day, yesterday→the day before, last year→the year before, ago→before, here→there等。例如:

  he said, "i haven't seen her today."→

  he said that he hadn't seen her that day.

  注意:如果轉述時就在原來的地方,就在說話的當天,就不必改變指示代詞、時間狀語、地點狀語等。

  (3)間接引語一般要用陳述句的語序,即主、謂、賓的順序。例如:

  he asked lucy, "where did you go?"→

  he asked lucy where she went.

  tom said, "what do you want, ann?"→

  tom asked ann what she wanted.

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關鍵詞: 直接引語,間接引語
編輯:特約講師
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